The scheme adds a small deposit to the cost of bottled drinks which is refunded when the container is returned.
Sweden introduced the scheme for aluminium cans in 1984 and plastic bottles in 1994. It has achieved a recycling rate of 85 per cent.
Mr Lochhead said the "simple scheme" was similar to a previous one for glass bottles.
About 22,000 tons of plastic drinks bottles are dumped in Scottish landfills each year.