Interior Minister Miguel Rodriguez said Vactor Johan Guache Mosquera and Erick Leonardo Huertas Rios were part of "a group of 10 men who were coming to carry out the murder of the president."
Two rifles with laser sites, 10 Venezuelan military uniforms and pictures of Mr Maduro and National Assembly president Diosdado Cabello were found with the men, he said.
Mr Rodriguez claimed that the pair were working on the orders of former Colombian president Alvaro Uribe.
They were part of a support team for a "highly experienced hitman" identified by the alias David, who was to kill Mr Maduro.
Mr Rodriguez claimed that David was taking orders from a Colombian who was in prison, Oscar Alcantara Gonzalez, who allegedly worked for Mr Uribe.